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The ultimate combination: Karnozin Extra + CreGAAtine

(for more advanced experts in supplementation and biological processes)

Estimated reading time: 6 minutes

If you want to increase the strength and resilience of your body in a natural manner, then this is the text for you. You’ve probably already heard of beta-alanine in this era of sports supplementation. However, it is not beta-alanine that makes it an extraordinary substance in the world of fitness and sports, but it is the substance that emerges from it – carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine). Carnosine is a substance that was first discovered in skeletal muscle, and afterwards it was determined that its concentration is the highest in skeletal muscles compared to our other organs [1].

In the text that follows, we will explain you why carnosine is such a powerful substance and what its effects are, most of which come from the imidazole ring from the L-histidine component, and what are the benefits of its supplementation in sports.

There are 7 “fronts” where carnosine is the winner of every battle, which leads to improved sports performance:

1. Regulation of pH value in the muscle – delays fatigue

2. Regulation of calcium in muscles – increases the force of muscle contact

3. Antioxidant capacity

4. Antiglycation

5. Carbonic anhydrase activation

6. Chelation of heavy metals

7. Stimulates the work of mitochondria

During moderate to intense exercise, there is an accumulation of hydrogen ions (H +) in the skeletal muscle, which lowers the pH VALUE, which has an impact on muscle function. When the primary source of energy is the breakdown of glucose (a process called glycolysis), which occurs during intense exercise, the production of lactic acid and H+ is higher. Elevated H+ levels lead to a further decrease in pH value, and the creation of an acidic environment in the muscle, which is one of the main causes of muscle fatigue. Muscle fatigue leads to decreased muscle capacity for contraction and inability to creatine force necessary for exercise [2].

Carnosine also leads to the activation of an enzyme called CARBOANHYDRASE. Carboanhydrase is also responsible for maintaining optimal acid-base balance in the body [3],[4].

Therefore, if the drop in pH can be prevented or delayed, we can delay muscle fatigue and prolong training. One of the main roles of carnosine in our muscles is to maintain the pH value in the physiological framework and prevent its decline. Carnosine acts as a buffer that reduces acidity in active muscle during high-intensity exercise [5].

While carnosine reduces the acidity resulting from the use of glucose as the primary energy source, CreGAAtine offers an alternative energy source in the form of phosphocreatine. This prevents our muscle from relying primarily on glucose during exercise and thus leads to faster fatigue if there is no other type of energy that can be used.

SINERGY CreGAAtine and Karnozin Extra
   
CreGAAtinephosphocreatin as energy sourceDelayed muscle fatigue and increased training adptation   
Karnozin ExtraPrevents acidity when glucose in a primary energy source

CALCIUM is one of the key components responsible for muscle contraction. When a nerve impulse gives a signal to a muscle cell tocontact, it is calcium that transmits this signal within the cell. Carnosine works by increasing the sensitivity to calcium in this mechanism. The higher the concentration of carnosine in the cell, the greater the effect on increasing sensitivity [6]. The better utilization of calcium with the influence of carnosine increases the force of muscle contaction [7],[8].

Intense exercise and muscle contraction increase the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). ROS can have both positive and negative effects on a muscle cell, and one of them is premature muscle fatigue that creates cramps. Karnozin Extra has a pronounced antioxidant capacity compared to standard carnosine.

Karnozin Extra also stimulates mitochondrial activity which affects the bioenergy of our body, as CreGAAtine also does. Karnozin Extra exerts its activity by increasing basal respiration in the mitochondria as well as the maximum capacity of the respiratory chain in the mitochondria [9].

From the text presented above, it is clear why the title of the text says that  Karnozin Extra and CreGAAtine make the ultimate combination.

Picture 1. The effect of Karnozina Extra i commercially available carnosine in concentration 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mM on mitochondrial activity, taken from Popovic. An in situ study of bioenergetic propertis of BHK21/C13 cells treated with Karnozin EXTRA® and NOW L­Carnosine® https://www.2021.febscongress.org/abstract_preview.aspx?idAbstractEnc=4424170095093093096099424170


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[4] Saada, M.C., Montero, J.L., Vullo, D., Scozzafava, A., Winum, J.Y. and Supuran, C.T., 2011. Carbonic anhydrase activators: gold nanoparticles coated with derivatized histamine, histidine, and carnosine show enhanced activatory effects on several mammalian isoforms. Journal of medicinal chemistry, 54(5), pp.1170-1177.

[5] Derave, W.; Ozdemir, M.S.; Harris, R.C.; Pottier, A.; Reyngoudt, H.; Koppo, K.; Wise, J.A.; Achten, E. Beta-alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters. J. Appl. Physiol. 2007, 103, 1736–1743. [Google Scholar]

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[7] Stein, R.B., Bobet, J., Oğuztöreli, M.N. and Fryer, M., 1988. The kinetics relating calcium and force in skeletal muscle. Biophysical journal, 54(4), pp.705-717.

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10. Suyama, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Maruyama, M.; Saito, K. Determination of carnosine, anserine and beta-alanine in the muscle of animals. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish 1970, 36, 1048–1053. [Google Scholar]

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